Anthony Pym


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Attempt at a chronology of Hispanic translation history


1713 Founding of the Real Academia.

1716 Felipe V signs the Decreto de Nueva Planta, putting an end ot the Fueros and imposing Castilian, thus replacing Catalan as the official language of Barcelona.

1723 Cristóbal Coret translates Juan Luis Vives's Diálogos.

1723 Corneille is translated into Castilian.

1726-39 Publication of the Diccionario de Autoridades.

1753 Francisco Mariano Cagigal translates Francisco Fulvio Frugoni's Retrato crítico de la Corte y del Cortesano from Italian.

1758 José Francisco de Isla, a Jesuit, translates Duchesne's Historia de España from French "aunque se vè hoy [the French language] tan introducida en España".

1759 Benito Jerónimo Feijoo estimates that at least 3,000 Spaniards read and understand French and laments that so few of them can translate well.

1760-61 The periodical Cajón de sastre presents itself as an anthology of foreign and Spanish authors.

1766 The Esquilache uprising.

1767 Carlos III orders the expulsion of the Jesuits. Some 4,000 move to Italy, where many of them live on a pension provided by the Spanish government.

1769-78 Gutierre Vaca de Guzmán publishes Viajes de Enrique Wanton a las tierras desconocidas australes y al país de las monas in four volumes, the first two translated from Italian, the last two written directly in Castilian.

1773 The pope bans the Jesuits.

1776 Antonio de Capmany writes Arte de traducir el idioma francés al castellano.

1777 Nicolás de Aquino translates Bergier's El deismo refutado por sí mismo (on Rousseau).

1780-1808 Moratín keeps his diary, written in Castilian mixed with Latin, French, English and Italian.

1782-99 Juan Andrés, an ex-Jesuit, publishes Dell'origine, progressi e stato attuale d'ogni letteratura, which his brother Carlos translates into Castilian and publishes in Madrid.

1783 Posthumous publication of José Francisco de Isla's translation of Flechier's Historia del Emperador Teodosio, rendered from French into Castilian.

1787-93 The periodical El espíritu de los mejores diarios publishes accounts of ideas from across Europe. It will be closed down following the French Revolution.

1788 Ignacio García Malo translates the Iliad from Greek into endecasyllabic verse.

1790 José Nicolás de Azara translates Middleton's Historia y vida de Marco Tulio Cicerón from English. The work has previously been plagiarized by l'abbé Prévost.

1790 Tomás de Iriarte translates Joachim Heinrich Campe's Robinson der Junge (1779). This will become the only Robinson Crusoe known by many Spaniards, since it became a school textbook and Defoe's text was not translated until 1835.

1792(?) Mariano Luis de Urquijo (1768-1817) has translated Voltaire's La mort de César, with a preface that was read as a direct attack on the Inquisition. He is protected by Floriblanda, who makes him part of the diplomatic corps and sends him to London in 1795. Later, as a minister at Madrid, Urquijo will protect Clavijo, the translator of Bufon, and help von Humboldt carry out his voyage in South America.

1793 Pedro Estala, believing in the ideals of the French Revolution and abandoning his ecclesiastical status, translates Edipo Rey.

1794 Pedro Estala translates Aristophanes' Pluto.

1798 Francisco Patricio de Berguízas translates Pindar's Obras Poéticas from Greek.

1798 José Mor de Fuentes, with Diego Clemencín, translates Horace and Saluste. He is also the translator of La Nouvelle Héloïse and Werther.

1798 Carlos IV allows ex-Jesuits to return to Spain.

On to the nineteenth century

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