Anthony Pym


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Attempt at a chronology of Hispanic translation history


1200 Accursius de Parma translates Galen's De Virtutibus cibariorum.

c.1200 Gaufridus de Vinosalvo (Geoffrey de Vinsauf) visits Rome and Spain.

c.1200/47 Philippus (Clericus) Tripolotanus translates pseudo-Aristotle's Secreta secretorum for Guido de Valentia, Bishop of Tripoli. He is ordered to translate 'sometimes literally and sometimes according to the sense, for the Arabs have one idiom and the Latins another'.

1202 Leonardo of Pisa writes his Liber abaci, introducing Hindu-Arabic numerals.

1204 Constantinople falls to Rome.

1206 Anonymous Latin translation of Ptolemy's Quadripartitum.

1208 Prohibition of a disputatio between Christians and Jews in Paris.

1208-1247 Rodericus Toletanus (Jimenez) is archbishop of Toledo.

1209-1229 Innocent III's campaign against the Albigeois.

1209-1210 Marcus Toledanus, canon at the Toledo cathedral, translates the Qur'an at the request of don Mauricio (archdeacon of Toledo and bishop-elect of Burgos) and archbishop Rodericus of Toledo. The translator is said to have traveled to Montpellier and Salerno in order to study medicine.

1210 Council of Paris prohibits the reading of Aristotle's books on natural philosophy as well as all commentaries on them. The Aristotelian texts arriving in Paris are mostly from Constantinople and translated from Greek into Latin.

1210 Geoffroy de Villehardouin writes his Conqueste de Constantinople in French.

c.1213-1216 Judah al-Harizi (1170-1235), a Jewish scholar born in Toledo and living in northern Spain, translates into Hebrew the Arabic Maqamat by al-Hariri (1054-1122). He then travels to the East where, sometime after 1216, he composes his own Hebrew Maqamat. Al-Harizi has also translated Moses ibn Ezra, Maimonides, Ali ibn Rudwan, Hunain ibn Ishaq and Galen. (Drory)

1212, July Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohads lose Islamic Spain except for the kingdom of Granada.

1213, June Marcus Toledanus translates Ibn Tumart's Aqida (profession of faith) into Latin for don Mauricio.

1215 Fourth Latran Council defines the doctrine of transsubstantiation, the rules of oral confession, the Inquisition and the exclusion of Jews from social life. The last-mentioned measure is refused by the kings of Castile and Aragon. 'Magister Michael Scotus' is named as accompanying the archbishop of Toledo. The ban on reading Aristotle is extended to the Metaphysics.

c.1215 The clergy is prohibited from practising medicine.

1215 The pope proclaims the statutes of the university of Paris.

1217 Philippe Auguste, in Paris, orders Jews to wear a distinctive sign.

1217, August Michael Scotus, at Toledo, completes his translation of al-Bitruji's De motibus caelorum with the help of 'Albuteus levita'. Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius, Al-Bitrûgi) was still alive and in Spain at the time of the translation.

1218 Salio (canon of Padua), at Toledo, translates Abu Bakr al-Hassan's On Nativities with the help of a learned Jew named David.

1219 Guillelmus Anglicus, in Marseille, writes De urina non visa. He is said to have also been a translator from Arabic.

1220 Michael Scotus moves to Bologna, having translated Aristotle's Historia animalium, De partibus anumalium and De generatione animalium. These translations were presumably carried out at Toledo. Michael Scotus is said to have translated nineteen books on animals, as well as Aristotle's Physica and Averroes's commentary on De celo et mundo.

1220 Leonardo Fibonacci Pisano writes his Practica geometrie.

1224 Fredericus II founds the University of Naples, to be reformed in 1231 and 1232, ensuring control over its proceedings.

1224 Majorca is taken by Christians.

1225 c. The Castilian Semjança del mundo is a translation of material from the Etymologiae of Isidorus Hispalensis (San Isidoro) and the Imago Mundi of Honorius Augustodunensis.

1227 Fredericus II is excommunicated, largely for not having organized a Crusade.

1227 Alphredus Anglicus (of Serechel), in Hispania, translates De vegetabilus working from an Arabic version by Hunain inb Ishaq.

1227-36 Michael Scotus is Fredericus II's court philosopher in Naples.

1229 Synod of Toulouse prohibits the reading of the Bible in vernacular languages.

1229 Masters and students leave Paris.

1229 Fredericus II crowns himself king of Jerusalem, having used negotiation with the sultan to obtain Bethlehem, Nazareth and free access for Christians to part of the holy city.

1229 First documents concerning the foundation of a university at Cambridge.

1230 Fredericus's excommunication is annulled.

1230 Islamic Extremadura is taken by Portugal.

1231 Fredericus II restrains the University of Salerno by granting it a royal statute.

1231 Fredericus II establishes a commercial treaty with the ruler of Tunis.

1231 Yehuda ben Mosé ha-Kohen, with Guillelmus Anglicus, writes a Latin recension of Azarquel's Azafea.

1231-33 Legislation against the Cathars in France; many escape to Catalonia.

1232 The sultan of Damascus gives Fredericus II an embellished manuscript Planetarium. The return gift is a white bear and a white peacock which Fredericus had earlier received from Egypt.

1232 Astronomical tables for London mention other tables for Paris, Marseille, Pisa, Palermo, Constantinople, Genoa and Toledo.

1233 Stephanus Caesaraugustanus, in Lleida, translates Liber Fiduciae de simplicibus medicinis.

1233 Juda ben Salomon ha-Cohen, in Toledo, aged 18, corresponds with Fredericus II's 'philosopher'. He will later write in Arabic and translate his own works into Hebrew when he goes to Tuscany.

1235 Fredericus II proclaims the first imperial law written in German.

1236 Castile takes Cordoba.

1236-1240 Theodorus 'Philosophus' Antiochenus follows Michael Scotus as Fredericus II's astrologer. He is the translator of Averroes's proemium to Aristotle's Physica.

1238 Valencia is taken by Christians.

1239 Fredericus II is accused by Gregorius IX of believing only what is proved by the force and reason of nature. He is excommunicated for the second time.

1240 Disputatio between Christians and Jews in Paris.

1240 Robertus Grossatesta translates Aristotle's Ethics.

1240-41 Fredericus II corrects Theodorus's translation of Moamyn's De scientia venandi per aves.

1240-44 Hermannus Alemmanus (Tuetonicus, Germanicus) translates Aristotle and Averroes. He also prepares a Latin translation of an Arabic gloss on Aristotle's Rhetorica, which he attribites to al-Farabi. (Murphy 1974: 91)

1242 Fredericus II sends a series of questions to Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Asia Minor and Yemen, and later to the Almohad caliph of Morocco, who sends them to ibn Sabin, a philosopher born in Spain and living in Ceuta.

1243 Hermannus Alemannus translates Summa quorundam Alexandrinorum.

1243 Murcia falls into Christian hands.

1245 Alexius translates Brontologium into Latin and Ikrabadsin's Antidotarium into Greek.

1245 At the Council of Lyon, Pope Innocent IV deposes Fredericus II.

1245-46 Third mission sent by the Pope to the Great Khan.

1245-48 Albertus Magnus, having studied at Padua, Hildesheim, Freiburg, Ratisbon, Strasbourg and Cologne, is at the university of Paris. Thomas Aquinas is his student.

1246 Castile takes Jaen.

1248 Fernando III of Castile takes Seville.

1248 Louis IX orders the burning of all Hebrew manuscripts in Paris.

1248 Albertus Magnus returns to Cologne from Paris.

1248 Seville is taken by Christians.

1249 'Wilhelmis de Brabantia [de Moerbeka] transtulit omnes libros Aristotelis de graeco in latinum verbum a verbo [...] ad instantium sancto Thomae de Aquino Doctoris'. But Thorndike (II, 599) does not set much store by this reference.

c.1250 Nicolo and Maffeo Polo leave Venice for China.

c. 1250 Latest date for translation of Aristotle's Rhetorica from Greek into Latin, possibly by Bartholomew of Messina (Murphy 1974: 92).

1250. April 9 Completion of the translation Libros de los animales que cazan, also called Libro de Moamín.

1250 Juda Mosca el Menor (Jehuda ben Moses?, ben Moshe ha-Kohén?) and Garci Perez (clérigo) translate Lapidario for Alfonso X. According to the prologue the translation had been begun in 1243.

1251 Translation of Calila e Dimna for Alfonso X. (Given as 1261 in the ms.)

1251 Year of reference for the Alphonsine Tables.

1252 (?) Fernando III's tomb has inscriptions in Latin, Castilian, Arabic and Hebrew.

1252-84 Reign of Alfonso X of Castile.

1252-56 Isak ibn Sid (Zag), employed at the Toledo synagogue, compiles the Libros del saber de astronomia del Rey Alonso in Castilian for Alfonso X.

1253 Florence produces gold coins (florins).

1253 Don Fadrique, Alfonso X's brother, sponsors the Castilian translation known as the Libro de los engaños e los asayamientos de las mugeres (Sendebar).

1254 Alfonso X unsuccessfully tries to establish a centre of Arabic and Latin learning in Seville.

1254. March 12. Judá ben Mosé Hacohen ('Yhuda fi de Mosse Alcohen') starts his Castilian translation of Aly Aben Ragel's El libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellas (written 1037) for Alfonso X. The Castilian version will later be translated into Latin by Aegidius de Thebaldis (from Parma) and Petrus de Regio.

1255 The arts course at the university of Paris includes all the newly translated Aristotle.

1255 Bonacossa , a Jew in Padua, translates Averroes' Colliget.

1255 Ferrando de Toledo translates Al-Zarkali's Acafea (Al-Safi'ha) into Castilian for Alfonso X. His version will be improved in 1277 by Bernaldo el Arabigo and Abraham.

1256? Hermannus Alemannus, in Toledo, translates Averroes' abridgement of Aristotle's Poetics and Alfarabi's glosses on Aristotle's Rhetoric. The latter is dedicated to the bishop of Burgos.

1256 Aegidius de Thebaldis (from Parma) and Petrus de Regio (Alfonso X's protonotarius), translate Ali ibn Ridwan's commentary on Ptolemy's Quadripartitum into Latin from the Castilian of Judá ben Mosé Hacohen (Jehuda ben Moses).

1256 Judá ben Mosé Hacohen ('alfaquí') and Guillermo Arremón de Aspa ('clérigo'), in Toledo, translate .IIII. libros de la ochava espera et de sus .XLVIII. figuras con sus estrellas into Castilian for Alfonso X.

1256 Translation into Castilian and then into Latin of Picatrix, a book of astrological magic, from an eleventh-century Arabic text by Abu Maslama of Madrid.

1256 Albertus Magnus is in Rome.

1257 Alfonso X of Castile and Richard of Cornwall are elected anti-emperors of the German empire.

1258? 'G. magister fil. mag. Johannes', in Lleida, translates Al-Gafiki's Simplici medicina.

1258 Judá ben Moses and Juan d'Aspa, in Toledo, translate Costa ben Luca's Libro de Alcora.

1259 Moses Ibn Tibbon translates Abu Jafar Ahmed's Viaticum into Hebrew; criticizes Constantinus's earlier version as 'often abbreviated, obscure and seriously altered in arrangement'.

1259 Alfonso X spends a whole year in Toledo.

1259. February 26. Judá ben Mosé Hacohen ('alfaquí'), in Toledo, and Juan d'Aspa ('clérigo', in Seville?) complete the translation into Castilian of the Libro de las Cruces for Alfonso X.

1260-68 Alfonso X in Granada.

1260 Brunetto Latini's embassy to Alfonso X.

1260, Jan. Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, a Flemish Dominican at Thebes in Greece, completes his translation of Aristotle's De partibus animalium.

1260, April Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, at Nicaea in Greece, completes his translation from Greek of Alexander of Aphrodisias's Opusculum De fato. He perhaps also completes his version of Aristotle's De caelo (Books I and II being a revision of Robertus Grosseteste's version) and Politica.

1260, Dec. Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, at Orvieto, translates Aristotle's other books on animals, from Greek into Latin. Michael Scotus had translated the books from Arabic some time before 1220.

1261 Alfonso X imposes a unified system of weights and measures.

c.1261 Thomas Aquinas moves from Paris to Italy, where he lives in Viterbo, Orvieto and Rome.

1262 Disputatio between Jews and Christians in Barcelona, before Jaume I of Aragon.

1262 Cadiz is taken by Christians.

1263 Johannes Brixiensis, in Montpellier, with help of Jacob ben Machir (Prophatius), a physician in Montpellier, translate Arzarquiel's Azafea into Latin.

1264 Habraym ('iuif') translates La Escala de Mahoma from Arabic into Castilian. Bonaventure de Siene (Italian, 'notaire et escriven'), also working for Alfonso X, translates the text from Castilian into French (and Latin?).

c.1265 Brunetto Latini writes his Trésor in French.

1266 Bonaventure de Siene drafts credentials of Alfonso's envoys to France to arrange marriage of Alfonso's eldest son and Blanche, daughter of Louis IX.

1266 Arsenius, a monk, translates Al-Zanati's Geomantia into Greek.

1266-67 Roger Bacon, in Paris, sends his Opus majus, Opus minus and Opus tercium to Pope Clement IV, seeking patronage.

1266-75 Sancho de Aragon (Alfonso X's brother-in-law) is archbishop of Toledo and a patron of learning.

1267-c.1277 'Don Abraham', Alfonso X's physician, translates Ibn Heitham, Qur'an Sutra 70, and Zarkali's Al-Saficha into Castilian.

1268, Sept. Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, at Viterbo, completes translations from Greek of Proclus's Elementatio theologica and Ammonius's commentary on Aristotle's De interpretatione. He perhaps also completes his revision of James of Venice's version of Aristotle's De anima.

1269 Wilhelmus de Moerbeka translates almost all the works of Archimedes from Greek into Latin, as well as Eutochius's commentaries on Archimedes.

1270 Wilhelmus de Moerbeka perhaps completes his translation of Aristotle's Rhetorica.

1270 Stephanus Messanensis (Takki), from Messina, a court translator in Naples, translates pseudo-Hermes.

1271 Rufinus (of Alessandria), in Murcia, translates a work of opthalmology from Arabic.

1272 Judá ben Moses Hacohen, a physician in Toledo, revises the Alfonsine Tables for Alfonso X.

1275 Alfonso X renounces his candidature as emperor.

1275 Alleged witches are burned alive in Toulouse.

1276 Judá ben Moses Hacohen, with Samuel (Levi), revises Libro de las figuras, Libro del Saber.

1276 Juan de Mesina compiles the Libros del saber de Astronomia del Rey Don Alonso.

1276 Judá ben Mosé Hacohen and Juan de Mesina are 'ayuntadores' for translation of Ochava esfera.

1276-82 Galfridus Anglicus (Geoffrey of Eversley) is simultaneously clerk to Edward I and notary to Alfonso X.

1277 Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, archbishop of Corinth, translates Galen's De alimentis from Greek into Latin.

1277 Rabi Zag el de Toledo ('nuestro sabio') writes Quadrante con que rectificar.

1277 Musa (Moses), in Palermo, translates pseudo-Hippocrates for Charles d'Anjou.

1277 Etienne Tempier, bishop of Paris, condemns 219 erroneous opinions assigned to Siger de Brabant, including the doctrines of Averroes. Albertus Magnus goes from Cologne to Paris to defend Thomas Aquinas in the affair.

1277 Alfonso X commands 'Bernaldo el arabigo' in Burgos and Abraham ('alfaquí') to carry out a second translation of the Acafea, correcting Ferrando de Toledo's version completed 20 years previously.

1277 Nicolo Spinola, a Genovese trader, opens up a trade route by sea around Gibraltar to Flanders.

1278 Roger Bacon condemned to prison for introducing 'some suspected novelties'.

1279 Faradj ben Salem (a Jew from Girgent), in Palermo, starts translating Arabic medical works for Charles d'Anjou.

1279 Cartagena taken by Christians.

1279 An observatory is built in Beijing.

1280-98 Gonzalo García Gudiel is archbishop of Toledo and 'a patron of learning'.

1280 Paravicius, physician in Venice, translates Teisir (Zohr) into Latin.

1280/84 Armengab (Armengaud) Blassii, in Montpellier, Philippe le Bel's physician, translates Avicenna and Galen.

1280-1300 Jehuda ben Astruc, a physician in Barcelona and interpreter for Jaume I and Alfonso X, compiles a Libre de paraules in Catalan from Arabic.

1281 Wilhelmus de Moerbeka, archbishop of Corinth, translates works by Proclus from Greek into Latin.

1282 Alfonso X is deposed.

c.1282 Arnaldus de Villanova, in Barcelona, translates Avicenna, Costa ben Luca, Galen, al-Kindi and Ibn Zohr.

1284-95 Reign of Sancho IV (el Bravo) of Castile, who orders a Castilian translation of Brunetto Latini's French Livres dou Tresor.

1284 Venice mints gold coins (ducats).

1285 Autopsy on a victim of the plague in Cremona.

1285 Eyeglasses are manufactured in Italy.

1285 Tarifa takes by Christians.

1290c. Simon Januensis, with help of Abraham Tortuosiensis, translates Serapion's De simplicibus.

1290-1302 Armengab, in Montpellier, translates writings by Maimonides.

1290 Expulsion of the 16,000 Jews living in England.

c.1292 Dante writes Vita nuova.

1292 Marco Polo returns to Venice after twenty years in China.

1293 The Cortes of Valladolid annul the Jews' right to fixed property and special judges.

1293 Probable date of the Castilian translation of Brunetto Latini's French Livres dou Tresor.

1296 Expulsion of the Lombards from France.

1296 The Pope instructs the clergy not to pay taxes to secular authorities.

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