Anthony Pym



List of publications


Pym, A., & Hao, Y. (2024). How to Augment Language Skills. Generative AI and Machine Translation in Language Learning and Translator Training. Routledge.

Hajek, J., Karidakis, M., Amorati, R., Hao, Y, Sengupta, M., Pym, A., and Woodward-Kron, R. (2022). Understanding the experiences and communication needs of culturally and linguistically diverse communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Melbourne: The University of Melbourne, report prepared for the Victorian Department of Families, Fairness and Housing.

Rizzi, A., Lang, B., and Pym, A. (2019). What is translation history? A Trust-based approach. Palgrave Macmillan.

Judicial Council in Cultural Diversity (2019). Normas recomendadas para trabajar con intérpretes judiciales. Coordination of translation, with Judith Raigal Arran.

Grin, F., Célio M. C., Peter A. Kraus, P. A., Marácz, L. Ozoliņa, Z., Nike K. Pokorn, N. K., Pym, A. (Eds.) (2018). The MIME Vademecum. Mobility and Inclusion in Multilingual Europe. Artgraphic.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (2018). Mediation Strategies, edited special issue of Language Problems and Language Planning, 42(3).

Pym, A. (2016). Translation solutions for many languages – histories of a flawed dream. Bloomsbury.

Pym, A.,Malmkjaer, K. and Gutiérrez, M. (2013). Translation and Language Learning. Luxembourg: European Commission.

Pym, A., Grin, F., Sfreddo, C., & Chan, A. L. J. (2013). The status of the translation profession in the European Union. Luxembourg: European Commission. Reprint: London: Anthem, 2013.

Pym, A. (2012). On Translator Ethics. Principles for Cross-cultural Communication. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Reworked version of Pour une éthique du traducteur. Korean translation as 번역가 윤리: 문화 간의 중재 원칙 by Hyo-Eun Choi and Hye-Kyung Park, Seoul: Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Press, 2016; Persian translation اصول اخلاقی مترجم by Zahra Fallahi and Farzaneh Me'mar, Teheran: Nashr-e Mar

Pym, A. and Orrego-Carmona, D. (Eds.) (2012). Translation Research Projects 4. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A. and Rosa A. A. (Eds.) (2012). New Directions in Translation Studies, Special issue of the journal Anglo Saxonica, 3(3). DOI:10.13140/2.1.3400.0325.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (2011). Translation Research Projects 3. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A. (2010). Exploring Translation Theories, London and New York: Routledge. Second edition, 2014. Third edition 2023. Japanese translation, 翻訳理論の探求, trans. Kayoko Takeda, Tokyo: Misuzu Shobo, 2010. Spanish translation, Teorías contemporáneas de la traducción. Materiales para un curso universitario, Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group, 2012; reprint: Havanna: Editorial Arte y Literatura, 2015. Portuguese translation, Teorias Contemporâneas da Tradução, Lisbon: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2013. Traditional Chinese translation 探索翻譯理論 第二版, Taipei: Bookman, 2016. Brazilian Portuguese, trans. Rodrigo Borges de Faveri, Explorando as teorias da tradução, Sao Paulo: Perspectiva, 2017. Russian translation byTamara Kazakova, Теоретические парадигмы в переводоведении. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg University Press, 2018. Turkish translation as Çeviri Kuramlarını Keşfetmek. Istanbul: Everest, 2023. French translation by Hélène Jaccomard as Explorations des théories de la traduction, Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group, 2024. Translation rights sold for Korean and Arabic.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (2010). Prosa australiana. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A., and Perekrestenko, A. (Eds.) (2009). Translation Research Projects 2. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A., Shlesinger, M. and Simeoni, D. (Eds.) (2007). Beyond Descriptive Translation Studies. Investigations in Homage to Gideon Toury. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Pym, A., and Perekrestenko, A. (Eds.) (2007). Translation Research Projects 1. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A., Shlesinger, M. and Jettmarová, Z. (Eds.) (2006). Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting,. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins. Translation into Korean: 통번역의 사회문화적 측면, Seoul: HUNE, 2014.

Pym, A., Perekrestenko, A. and Starink, B. (Eds.) (2006). Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization). Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A. (2004). The Moving Text: Localization, Translation and Distribution, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Online version here. And pirated here. Errata here.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (2001). The Return to Ethics. Special issue of The Translator, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.

Pym, A., Fallada, C., Biau Gil, J. R., Orenstein, J. (Eds.) (2001). Innovation and E-Learning in Translator Training. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.   

Pym, A. (2000). Negotiating the Frontier: Translators and Intercultures in Hispanic History, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. Re-edition: London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Pym, A. (1998). Method in Translation History, Manchester: St Jerome Publishing. Reprint with Chinese introduction: 北京 : 外语敎学与硏究出版社, Beijing, 2006. Arabic translation by Ali Kalfat: المنهج في تاريخ الترجمة, Cairo: National Center for Translation, 2010. Rights sold for Turkish. Re-edition: London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Pym, A. (1997). Pour une éthique du traducteur. Arras: Artois Presses Université / Ottawa: Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa.

Caminade, M. and Pym, A. (1995). Les formations en traduction et interprétation. Essai de recensement mondial. Paris: Société Française des Traducteurs.

Pym, A. (1993). Epistemological Problems in Translation and its Teaching, Calaceite: Caminade.

Pym, A. (1992). Translation and Text Transfer. An Essay on the Principles of Intercultural Communication,Frankfurt/Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Vienna: Peter Lang. Revised edition: Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group, 2010.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (1990). Mites australians, Calaceite: Caminade.

Pym, A. (Ed.) (1988). L’Internationalité littéraire, Paris-Barcelona: Noésis.




Pym, A., & Hu K. Trade-offs in translation effects. Illustrations and methodological concerns. Target.


Qiu, J., & Pym, A. (2024). Fatal flaws? Investigating the effects of machine translation errors on audience reception in the audiovisual context. Perspectives. Studies in Translation Theory and Practice. Open access.

Sengupta, M., Pym, A., Hao Y., Hajek, J., Karidakis, M., Woodward-Kron, R., & Amorati, R. (2024). On the transcreation, format and actionability of healthcare translations. Translation & Interpreting, 16(1), 121-141.


Pym, A. (2023). Active Translation Literacy in the Literature Class. PMLA, 138(3), 819-823. https//:10.1632/S0030812923000718

Hao Y., & Pym, A. (2023). Choosing effective teaching methods for translation technology classrooms: Teachers’ perspectives. Forum, 21(2), 190-202.

Pym, A. (2023). Triage and technology in healthcare translation. In G. Palumbo, K. Peruzzo & G. Pontrandolfo (Eds.) What's Special about Specialised TranslationEssays in Honour of Federica Scarpa, pp. 247-268. Peter Lang.

Hao, Y., & Pym, A. (2023). Where do translation students go? A study of the employment and mobility of Master graduates. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 17(2):, 211-229.

Bouyzourn, K., Macreadie, R., Zhou, S., Meylaerts, R., & Pym, A. (2023). Translation policies in times of a pandemic: An intercity comparison. Language Planning and Language Policy, 47(1): 72-94.

Pym, A. (2023). Empirical translation history: tripping over Ukraine’s Executed Renaissance. In M. Djovčoš, I. Hostová, M. Kusá, & E. Pérez (Eds.) Translation Studies in Ukraine as an Integral Part of the European Context, pp. 18-23. VEDA, Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

Pym, A. (2023). A naïve inquiry into translation between Aboriginal languages in pre-Invasion Australia. In I. Feinauer, A. Marais & M. Swart (Eds.) Translation Flows: Exploring networks of people, processes and products, pp. 3-22. Benjamins.

Pym, A. (2023). Translating the Indigenous. Carl Strehlow’s Word for God in Central Australia. Chronotopos - A Journal of Translation History4(1), 11–29.

Pym, A., Raigal-Aran, J., & Bestué Salinas, C. (2023). Non-standard court interpreting as risk management. In C. Zwischenberger, K. Reithofer, and S. Rennert (2023). Introducing new hypertexts on Interpreting (Studies), pp. 107-124. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Pym, A., Hu, B., Karidakis, M., Hajek, J., Woodward-Kron, R., Amorati, R. (2023) Community trust in translations of official COVID-19 communications in Australia: An ethical dilemma between academics and news media. In P. Blumczynski and S. Wilson (Eds.) The Languages of COVID-19. Translational and Multilingual Perspectives on Global Healthcare, pp. 110-127. Routledge.

Hao Y., Pym, A., & Wang Y. (2023). Chinese students in Australia: motivations and mobility in the face of COVID-19. Melbourne Asia Review, 14. doi: 10.37839/mar2652-550x14.1


Pym, A., Ayvazyan, N., & Prioleau, J. (2022). Should raw machine translation be used for public-health information? Suggestions for a multilingual communication policy in Catalonia. In E. Monzó-Nebot and C. D. Mellinger (Eds.) Linguistic Policies for Social Justice, Special issue of Just. Journal of Language Rights & Minorities, Revista de Drets Lingüístics i Minories, 1(1), 71-99.

Pym, A., & Hu, B. (2022). Trust and Cooperation through Social Media. COVID-19 translations for Chinese communities in Melbourne. In T. K. Lee and D. Wang (Eds.) Translation and Social Media Communication in the Age of the Pandemic, pp. 44-61. Routledge.

Ayvazyan, N., & Pym, A. (2022). Portraying Linguistic Exclusion. Cases of Russian speakers in the province of Tarragona, Spain. In F. Grin, L. Marácz and N.  Pokorn (Eds.) Advances in Interdisciplinary Language Policy, pp. 237-256. John Benjamins.

Karidakis, M., Woodward-Kron, R. Amorati, R. Hu, B., Pym, A., and Hajek, J. (2022). Enhancing COVID-19 public health communication for culturally and linguistically diverse communities: An Australian interview study with community representatives. Qualitative Health Communication, 1(1): 4–26.

Hao, Y., and Pym, A. (2022). Teaching how to teach translation: Tribulations of a tandem-learning model. Perspectives, 30(2), 275-291. 

Pym, A. (2022). Who says who interprets? On the possible existence of an interpreter system. The Translator.

Pym, A. (2022). Contours of translation studies in Australia. In J. Wakabayashi and M. O'Hagan (Eds.) Translation and Interpreting in Australia and New Zealand. Distance and Diversity, pp. 291-308. Routledge.

Pym, A. (2022). Conceptual tools in translation history. In C. Rundle (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation History, pp. 86-101. London and New York: Routledge. Pre-print here.


Torres-Simón, E., Raigal Aran, J., Marín, D., Font, M., Prats, S., Pym, A. (2021). Disseny d’una simulació judicial multilingüe per futurs traductors, intèrprets i operadors jurídics. Revista del Congrés Internacional de Docència Universitària i Innovació 5.

Pym, A. (2021). Translator ethics. In N. Pokorn and K. Koskinen (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Ethics, pp. 147-161. Routledge.

Pym, A., & Torres-Simón, E. (2021). Efectos de la automatización en las competencias básicas del traductor: la traducción automática neuronal. In A. Vidal Suñé and A. Alarcón Alarcón (Eds.) Ocupaciones y lenguaje. Indicadores y análisis de competencias lingüísticas en el ámbito laboral, pp. 479-509. Publicacions de la Universitat Rovira i Virgili.

Pym, A. & Torres-Simón, E. (2021). Is automation changing the translation profession?. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 270, 39-57.

Pym, A. &  Fan, M. (2021). Aspects of Machine Translation: An Interview with Professor Anthony Pym. Interview by Fan Mengxu, Shandong Foreign Language Teaching, 42(3): 3-12.

Torres-Simón, E. & Pym, A. (2021). La confianza de los estudiantes de traducción en la traducción automática: ¿demasiado buena para ser verdad? Revista internacional de lenguas extranjeras, 15: 1-20.

Pym, A. (2021). Translation and language learning as policy options. Questions of costs and literacy development. Translation and Interpreting, 13(1): 24-37. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese: Pym, A. (2023). Tradução e aprendizado de línguas como opções políticas: questões de custo e desenvolvimento de literacia, trans. N. G. Lopo Ferreira; K. Zuanny; M. Pfau. Cadernos de Tradução, 43(1): 1-29.

Pym, A. (2021). On recent nationalisms in translation studies. INContext1(1), 59-81.

Pym, A. (2021). On Erlebnis in translation knowledge. In J. Stanley, B. O’Keeffe, R. Stolze, L. Cercel (Eds.) Cognition and Comprehension in Translational Hermeneutics, pp. 13-35. Zeta.

Hao, Y., and Pym, A. (2021). Translation skills required by Master graduates for employment: Which are needed, which are not?. Across Languages and Cultures 22(2): 158-175.

Pym, A. (2021). On cosmopolitan translation and how worldviews might change. Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus, 61: 33-48. doi: 10.5842/61-0-918.

Pym, A. (2021). Cooperation, risk, trust. A restatement of translator ethics. Stridon. Journal of Studies in Translation and Interpreting 2(1): 5-24.


Pym, A. (2020). Trust-based translation history. Guideline questions and an illustration. Chronotopos, 2, 146-160. Hungarian translation: Bizalomalapú fordítástörténelem. A kulcskérdések és egy illusztráció. Trans. Hunyadi Zsolt. Aetas Történettudományi folyóirat, 35(2), 167-178.

Pym, A. (2020). Translation, risk management and cognition. In A. Lykke Jakobsen and F. Alves (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Cognition, pp. 445-458. London and New York: Routledge.

Pym, A. (2020). Rebranding translation. In J. Fornasiero, S.M.A. Reed, R. Amery, E. Bouvet, K. Enomoto, H.L. Xu (Eds.) Intersections in Language Planning and Policy, pp. 33-48. Cham: Springer.

Pym, A. (2020). Quality. In M. O’Hagan (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Technology, pp. 437-452. Abingdon and New York: Routledge. Post-print here.

Pym, A and L. Z. Karvilacs (2020). …a történetírás eredendően irodalmi műfaj, és úgy vélem, továbbra is annak kell maradnia [History is an inherently literary genre, and I believe it should continue to be one]. Interview by László Z. Karvalics. Aetas Történettudományi folyóirat, 35(2): 157-165.

Pym, A. (2020). Literary Translation. In J. Frow (Ed.) Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature. Reprint in J. Frow (Ed.) The Oxford Encyclopedia of Literary Theory, 2022.

Pym, A. (2020). For a sociology of translator training. In J. Zhao, D. Li, L. Tian (Eds.) Translator Training, pp. 9-19. Singapore: Springer Nature.


Pym, A. (2019). Teaching translation in a multilingual practice class. In David Sawyer, Frank Austermühl and Vanessa Enríquez Raído (Eds) Translator education: The evolving curriculum, pp. 75-79. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins.

Torres-Simón, E. and Pym, A. (2019). European Masters in translation. A comparative study. In David Sawyer, Frank Austermühl and Vanessa Enríquez Raído (Eds) Translator education: The evolving curriculum, pp. 319-340. Benjamins. (Pre-print here(Academia session here)

Pym, A. (2019). Merkel Responds to Reem: What We should be Training Mediators for. In Anikó Sohár, Ildikó Limpár and Dalma Galambos (eds) Getting Translated, pp. 9-18. Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó.

Pym, A. (2019). How neural machine translation might change the work of professional translators. In Hasuria Che Omar et al. (Eds.) Translation in the digital era. Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Translation, pp. 1-13. Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia.

Pym, A. and Z. Ye (2019). Problems and Progress in the Study of Translation History. An Interview with Professor Anthony Pym. Interview by Zhang Ye. Journal of Beijing International Studies University, 41(5), 81-91.

Pym, A. and Lei, J. (2019). Prospects of Translation Studies: Interview with Anthony Pym. Interview by Lei Jing. Chinese Science and Technology Translators Journal, 32(3), 44-46.

Pym, A. and B. Hu. (2019). Constructive ambiguity and risk management in bilingual foreign-affairs texts. The case of ‘One China’. Asia Pacific Translation and Intercultural Studies, 6(1): 3-16. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. and Ayvazyan, N. (2018). Linguistics, translation and interpreting in foreign-language teaching contexts. In Kirsten Malmkjær (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Linguistics, pp. 393-407. London and New York: Routledge. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2018). Where Translation Studies lost the plot: Relations with language teaching. Translation and Translanguaging in Multilingual Contexts, 4(2) : 203-222. (revised version of a text first published in Japanese). (Pre-print here)

Ayvazyan, N. and A. Pym (2018). Mediation choice in immigrant groups. A study of Russian speakers in southern Catalonia. Language Problems and Language Planning, 42(3): 344-364. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2018). Introduction: Why mediation strategies are important. Language Problems and Language Planning, 42(3):  255-266. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2018). Building paradise - a mission for Translation Studies. In Yangsheng Guo (Ed.) Toward a new paradigm in translation studies in a new era, pp. 1-4. Beijing: Central Compilation and Translation Press.

Pym, A. (2018). A typology of translation solutions. Journal of Specialised Translation, 30: 41-65.

Pym, A. (2018). Will machine translation replace human translators?, Should machine translation be used when providing public services?, What are the best ways of working with machine translation?. In François Grin et al. (Eds.) The MIME Vademecum. Mobility and Inclusion in Multilingual Europe, pp. 146-163 Grandson: Artgraphic.

Pym, A. and K. Matsushita (2018). Risk mitigation in translator decisions. Across Languages and Cultures, 19(1): 1–18.


Pym, A. (2017). Where Translation Studies Lost the Plot: Relations with Language Teaching. Trans. into Japanese by Hironori Matsumoto, in Kayoko Takeda (Ed.) 翻訳通訳研究の新地平 (New Horizons in Translation and Interpreting Research), 164-189. Tokyo: Koyo Shobo.

Pym, A. (2017). Translation and economics: inclusive communication or language diversity? Perspectives: Studies in Translation Theory and Practice, 25(3): 362-377. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2017). Response by Pym to Invariance orientation: Identifying an object for translation studies. Translation Studies, 10(3): 338-343.

Pym, A. (2017). Print and modernity – questioning the grand narrative. In Andrea Rizzi (Ed.) Trust and Proof. Translators in Renaissance Print Culture, pp. vii-xiii. Leiden, Boston: Brill.

Pym, A. and Bassnett, S. (2017). On the direction of Translation Studies. Cultus 10: 145-152.


Pym, A. (2016). Translating between languages. In Keith Allan (Ed.) Routledge Handbook of Linguistics, pp. 417-430. London and New York: Routledge. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2016). Descritivismo - O background intelectual, translated by E. C. Godarth, Y. N’ganam & B. Sant’Anna. Cadernos de Tradução, 36(3), 214-317.

Pym, A. and Torres-Simón, E. (2016). Designing a course in Translation Studies to respond to students’ questions. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 10(2), 183-203, DOI: 10.1080/1750399X.2016.1198179 (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2016). Risk analysis as a heuristic tool in the historiography of interpreters. For an understanding of worst practices. In Jesús Baigorri-Jalón and Kayoko Takeda (Eds.) New Insights in the History of Interpreting, pp. 247-268. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins. DOI: 10.1075/btl.122.10pym (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2016). On the passage of transcendent messages: Johnnies and Mehmets. Forum, 14(1), 121-141. (Pre-print here)

Torres-Simón, E., and Pym, A. (2016). The Professional Backgrounds of Translation Scholars. Report on a survey. Target, 28(1), 110-131. DOI: 10.1075/target.28.1.05tor. Translated by I. Leite, P. Vianna and A. Villela as A bagagem profissional de estudiosos da tradução. Relatório de uma pesquisa, Rónai. Revista de Estudos Clássicos e tradutórios, 3(1)(2015), 16-34. Translated by K. Červeňáková, Z. Kunecová  and K. Bednárová-Gibová, Profesijné skúsenosti translatológov: Výsledky prieskumu. Target Online, 2020. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2016). Johnnies and Mehmets. In Julia Richter, Cornelia Zwischenberger, Stefanie Kremmel, Karlheinz Spitzl (Eds.) (Neu-)Kompositionen. Aspekte transkultureller Translationswissenschaft, pp. 277-298. Berlin: Frank & Timme. (Post-print here)

Pym, A., Orrego-Carmona, D. and Torres-Simón, E. (2016). Status and technology in the professionalization of translators. Market disorder and the return of hierarchy. The Journal of Specialised Translation, 25, 33-53.

Ayvazyan, N. and A. Pym (2016). West enters East. A strange case of unequal equivalences in Soviet translation theory. In Larisa Schippel and Cornelia Zwischenberger (Eds.) Going East: Discovering New and Alternative Traditions in Translation Studies, pp. 221-245. Berlin: Frank & Timme.

Pym, A. (2016). A spirited defense of a certain empiricism in Translation Studies (and in anything else concerning the study of cultures). Translation Spaces, 5(2), 289–313.

Pym, A. and A. K. Panda (2016). Interview with Anthony Pym. Interview by Aditya Kumar Panda. Translation Today, 10(2), 124-138. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2016), Getting it right, forever? Deconstructing a professional discourse on the role of translators Part of a talk given in Kraków on March 14, 2016. (Available here)


Pym, A. (2015). You don't have to be a believer to know it (做圣经翻译研究不必为信徒). Foreign Language Research in China: 79-81. Also published as Foreword to Ren Dongsheng and Gao Yuxia, Papers on Bible Translation. Beijing: Commercial Press, 2016. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2015). Translating as risk management. Journal of Pragmatics, 85, 67-80. Hungarian translation by C. Schiller as A fordítás mint kockázatkezelé. In E. Robin and D. Ágnes Varga (Eds.) Fordítástudomány – fordításban [Translation - Studies in Translation]. Budapest: ELTE, FTT (2018), 35-60. 

Pym, A. (2015). The medieval postmodern in Translation Studies. In Alberto Fuertes and Ester Torres-Simón (Eds.) And Translation Changed the World (and the World Changed Translation), pp. 105-123. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and Ayvazyan, N. (2015). The case of the missing Russian translation theories. Translation Studies, 8(3), 321-341. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2015). In memory of Daniel Simeoni. In María Constanza Guzmán and Lyse Hébert (Eds.) The view from the agent: Daniel Simeoni's "traductologies", pp. 356-359. Toronto: Éditions du Gref. (Pre-print)

Pym, A. and Torres-Simón, E. (2015). The pedagogical value of translation solution types. Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 23(1), 89-106. (Pre-print here) Chinese translation by R. Wen and A. L. J. Chan as 翻译解决方法分类对翻译教学的价值 in 东方翻译. East Journal of Translation (东方翻译), 2, 39-48.

Pym, A. (2015). A response to the response to ‘The case of the missing Russian translation theories’. Translation Studies, 8(3), 247-351. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (2014). Translator associations – from gatekeepers to communities. Target, 26(3), 466–491. DOI 10.1075/target.26.3.06pym. (Pre-print here). Translated by Min-Hsiu Liao, Jiaxin Lin, Si-Yuan Wang, Yidan Liu & Yingzhi Forsyth as 译者协会 – 从守门人到社群组织. Target Online (2019).

Pym, A. (2014). Translation Studies in Europe – reasons for it, and problems to work on. Target, 26(2), 185–205. DOI 10.1075/target.26.2.02pym (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2014). Localization, training, and instrumentalization. In Ester Torres-Simón and David Orrego-Carmona (Eds.) Translation Research Projects 5, pp. 37-50 Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A. (2014). Charles Bally and the origins of translational equivalence. Forum, 12(2), 45-63. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A., Gabriel González Núñez, Marta Miquel-Iriarte, Sara Ramos Pinto, Carlos S. C. Teixeira, Wine Tesseur (2014). Work placements in doctoral research training in the humanities: Eight cases from Translation Studies. Across, 15(1), 1-23. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and Haddadian, E. (2013). Voice in the Persian Hajji Baba. In K. Taivalkoski and M. Suchet (Eds.) La traduction des voix intra-textuelles / Intratextual Voices in Translation, pp. 27-46. Montreal: Éditions québécoises de l’œuvre.


Pym, A. (2013). Translation skill-sets in a machine-translation age. Meta, 58(3), 487-503. Hungarian translation by Dóra Ágnes Varga: „Fordítói készségek a gépi fordítás korában”, In Edina Robin and Dóra Ágnes Varga (Eds.) Fordítástudomány – fordításban [Translation  - Studies in Translation], pp. 105-124. Budapest: ELTE, FTT, 2018. Turkish translation by Mehmet Cem Odacioglu as Makine Çevirisi Çağında Çeviri Becerileri in Fadime Çoban (Ed.) Akademik Çeviri Eğitimi. Temel Metinler, pp. 103-134. Istanbul: Aktif Yayınları, 2021.

Pym, A. (2013). Translation as an instrument for multilingual democracy. Critical Multilingualism Studies, 1(2), 78-95. 

Pym, A. (2013). Research skills in Translation Studies: What we need training in. Across languages and cultures, 14, 1-14. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2013). Inculturation as elephant. On translation and the spread of literary modernity. In Brian Nelson and Brigid Maher (Eds.) Perspectives on Literature and Translation: Creation, Circulation, Reception, pp. 87-104. London and New York: Routledge. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and P. Pan (2013). Translation Technology and Translation Theory - Dialogue with Anthony Pym on Localization. Interview by Pingliang Pan. Chinese Translators Journal, 34(4), 61-64.


Pym, A., Liu, Y, Feng, Q. and Wang, S. (2012). Aspects of translation education: An interview with Professor Anthony Pym by Liu Yanchun, Feng Quangong and Wang Shaoshuang. Guang Yi: Lingual, Literary and Cultural Translation, 6, 201-220.

Pym, A. (2012). On History in Formal Conceptualizations of Translation. In Martin J. Burke and Melvin Richter (Eds.) Why Concepts Matter. Translating Social and Political Thought, pp. 59-72. Leiden: Brill. (Pre-print here)

Ayyad, A. and Pym, A. (2012). Translator Interventions in Middle East Peace Initiatives. Detours in the Roadmap?. In Beverly Adab, Peter A. Schmit, Gregory Shreve (Eds).Discourses of Translation. Festschrift in Honour of Christina Schäffner, pp. 83-100. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2012). Democratizing translation technologies: the role of humanistic research. In Valeria Cannavina and Anna Fellet (Eds.) Language and Translation Automation Conference, pp. 14-29. Rome: The Big Wave.


Windle, K, and Pym, A. (2011). European Thinking on Secular Translation, In K. Malmkjær & K. Windle (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, 7-22. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pym, A. (2011). Website localization. In Kirsten Malmkjær and Kevin Windle (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, pp. 410-424. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2011). Training translators. In Kirsten Malmkjær and Kevin Windle (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Translation Studies, pp. 475-489. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2011). What technology does to translating. Translation & Interpreting, 3(1): 1-9. Translated into Hungarian by Veronika Németh as Miként hat a technológia a fordításra? (2015).

Pym, A. (2011). Translation theory as historical problem-solving. Intercultural Communication Review, 9, 49-61. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2011). Translation research terms – a tentative glossary for moments of perplexity and dispute. In Anthony Pym (Ed.) Translation Research Projects 3, pp. 75-99. Tarragona: Intercultural Studies Group.

Pym, A. (2011). The translator as non-author, and I am sorry about that. In Claudia Buffagni, Beatrice Garzelli, Serenella Zanotti (Eds.) The Translator as Author. Perspectives on Literary Translation, pp. 31-44. Münster: LIT Verlag. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (2010). Translation theory today and tomorrow - responses to equivalence. In Lew N. Zybatow (Ed.) Translationswissenschaft - Stand und Perspektiven, pp. 1-14. Frankfurt aM: Peter Lang. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2010). Translation après coup: on why Translation Studies has a specific object. In Christine Pagnoulle (Ed.) Sur le fil : traducteurs et éthique, éthiques du traducteur / Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Translators and Ethics, Ethics in Translation, pp. 10-20. Liège: L3. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2010). Exploring Transation Theories – The Intellectual Background. (Copy here). Translation into Brazilian Portuguese:

Pym, A. (2010). Discursive Persons and Distance in Translation. Revised version. In Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and Marcel Thelen (Eds.) Meaning in Translation, pp. 193-206. Frankfurt aM: Peter Lang. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (2009). Using process studies in translator training. Self-discovery through lousy experiments. In S. Göpferich, F. Alves & I. M. Mees (Eds.) Methodology, Technology and Innovation in Translation Process Research, pp. 135-156. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur. (Post-print here)

Poupaud, S., Pym, A., Torres-Simón, E. (2009). Finding translations. On the use of bibliographical databases in translation history. Meta, 54(2), 264-278. Translated into Turkish by Hatice Oluk Çakir as Çevirileri Bulmak: Çeviri Tarihinde Bibliyografik Veri Tabanlarının Kullanımı Üzerine. In N. Demez, A, Karakaya, & F. İkiz (Eds.) Çeviribilim Okumaları V, pp. 13-34. İstanbul Üniversitesi.

Pym, A. (2009). On empiricism and bad philosophy in Translation Studies. In Hasuria Che Omar, Haslina Haroon, and Aniswal Abd. Ghani (Eds.) The Sustainability of the Translation Field, pp. 28-39. Kuala Lumpur: Persatuan Penterjemah Malaysia. Trans. E. Jolly, Empirisme et mauvaise philosophie en traductologie. In Tatiana Milliaressi (Ed.) De la linguistique à la traductologie, pp. 53-73. Lille: Septentrion Presses Universitaires, 2011.

Pym, A. (2009) ‘All things to all people’. On Nida and involvement. In Rodica Dimitriu and Miriam Shlesinger (Eds.) Translators and Their Readers. In Homage to Eugene A. Nida, pp. 317-332.Brussels: Les Editions du Hazard.


Pym, A. (2008). Translation vs. Language Learning in International Institutions. Explaining the Diversity Paradox. Cultus, 1(1), 70-83. (Access here)

Pym, A. (2008). Translation technology and training for intercultural dialogue. What to do when your translation memory won’t talk with you. In Rodica Dimitriu and Karl-Heinz Freigang (Eds.) Translation Technology in Translation Classes, pp. 12-27. Iasi: Institutul European. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). Translation and the philosophy of dialogue. Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 109(1), 106-110. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). Professional corpora: teaching strategies for work with online documentation, translation memories and content management. Chinese Translators’ Journal, 29(2), 41-45. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). On Toury’s laws of how translators translate. InAnthony Pym, Miriam Shlesinger and Daniel Simeoni(Eds.) Beyond Descriptive Translation Studies. Investigations in Homage to Gideon Toury, pp. 311-328. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). On omission in simultaneous interpreting: Risk analysis of a hidden effort. In Gyde Hansen, Andrew Chesterman & Heidrun Gerzymisch-Arbogast (Eds.) Efforts and Models in Interpreting and Translation Research, pp. 83-105. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). Of green igloos, globalizing hierarchies, and Renaissance translatio. In Isabel Pascua et al. (Eds.) Estudios de traducción, cultura, lengua y literatura. In memoriam Virgilio Moya Jiménez, pp. 65-70. Las Palmas: Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2008). Humanizing Translation History. Hermes, 42, 23-48.


Pym, A. (2007). Translation technology as rupture in the philosophy of dialogue. In Ian Kemble (Ed.) Translation Technologies and Culture, pp. 1-9. Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2007). Philosophy and Translation. In Piotr Kuhlwczak & Karin Litau (Eds.) A Companion to Translation Studies, 24-44. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. (Copy here) Reprinted in Liu Junping and Tan Jianghua (Eds.) 西方翻译理论名著选读 An Anthology of Western Translation Theory, pp. 747-766. Wuhan: Wuhan University Publishing House, 2012. Translated by Hamid Alawadhi as الفلسفة والترجمة،, التعريب (Altaerib),59 (2020), 104-141. 

Pym, A. (2007). On Shlesinger’s proposed equalizing universal for interpreting. In Franz Pöchhacker, Arnt Lykke Jakobsen and Inger M. Mees (Eds.) Interpreting Studies and Beyond: A Tribute to Miriam Shlesinger, pp. 175-190. Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur Press. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2007). On History in Formal Conceptualizations of Translation. Across Languages and Cultures, 8(2), 153-166. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2007). On historical epistemologies of Bible translating. In Philip A. Noss (Ed.) A History of Bible Translation, pp. 195-215. Rome: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura. (Pre-print here

Pym, A. (2007). Natural and directional equivalence in theories of translation. Target, 19(2),271-294. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2007). Epurre… A reply to Federica Scarpa’s reply. In Maria Teresa Musacchio and Geneviève Henrot Sostero (Eds.)Tradurre: Formazione e professione, pp. 171-182. Università degli studi di Padova. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2007). Cross-Cultural Networking: Translators in the French-German network of petites revues at the end of the nineteenth century. Meta, 52(4),744-762.


Pym, A. (2006). On the social and the cultural in Translation Studies. InAnthony Pym, Miriam Shlesinger and Zuzana Jettmarová(Eds.) Sociocultural Aspects of Translating and Interpreting, pp. 1-25. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins. (Pre-print here). Translation into Korean: 통번역의 사회문화적 측면, Seoul: HUNE, 2014, 17-53.

Pym, A. and Biau Gil, J. R. (2006). Technology and Translation. A pedagogical overview. In Anthony Pym, Alexander Perekrestenko & Bram Starink (Eds.) Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization), pp. 5-20. Intercultural Studies Group. 

Pym, A. (2006). Globalization and the politics of translation studies. Meta, 51(4), 744-757.

Pym, A. and Style, J. (2006). Portugal and Spain, 1790-1900. In Peter France and Kenneth Haynes (Eds. )Oxford History of Literary Translation in English, vol. 4, pp. 261-274. Oxford University Press. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2006). Asymmetries in the teaching of translation technology. In Anthony Pym, Alexander Perekrestenko & Bram Starink (Eds.) Translation Technology and its Teaching (with much mention of localization), pp.113-124. Intercultural Studies Group.


Pym, A. (2005). Training translators – ten recurrent naiveties. Translating Today, 2, 3-6. (Pre-print here)

Fallada Pouget, C., Biau Gil, J.R., Pym, A. and Gutiérrez-Colón Plana, M. (2005). La formación de la comunidad en dos cursos virtuales: un estudio comparativo. In María Luisa Carrió Pastor (Ed.) Perspectivas interdisciplinares de la lingüística aplicada, vol. 3, pp. 221-234. Valencia: Asociación Española de Lingüística Aplicada. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2005). The Translator as Author: Two Quixotes. Translation and Literature, 14(1), 71-81. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2005). Localization. On its nature, virtues and dangers. Synaps, 17, 17-25.

Pym, A. (2005). Explaining Explicitation. In Krisztina Karoly and Ágata Fóris (Eds.) New Trends in Translation Studies. In Honour of Kinga Klaudy, pp. 29-34. Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó.


Pym, A. (2004). Translational ethics and electronic technologies. A Profissionalização do Tradutor, pp. 121-126. Lisbon: Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia / Uniao Latina. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2004). The Use of Translation in International Organizations. In Harald Kittel et al. (Eds.) Übersetzung Translation Traduction. Ein internationales Handbuch zur Übersetzungsforschung, vol. 1, pp. 85-92. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter. Pre-print here

Pym, A. (2004). Text and Risk in Translation. In Maria Sidiropoulou and Anastasia Papaconstantinou (Eds.) Choice and Difference in Translation. The Specifics of Transfer, pp. 27-42. Athens: University of Athens. Translated into Greek in Maria Sidiropoulou (Ed.) Metafrastikes Optikes, Athens, 2007, 179-199. Extended version in Karin Aijmer and Cecilia Alvstad (Eds.) New Tendencies in Translation Studies, pp. 69-82. Göteborg University, 2005. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (2004). Propositions on Cross-Cultural Communication and Translation. Target, 16(1), 1-28. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and G. Chrupala (2004). The Quantitative Analysis of Translation Flows in the Age of an International Language. In Albert Branchadell and Lovell Margaret West (Eds.) Less Translated Languages, pp. 27-38. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2004). On the training of translation teachers: report on a consortium. A Profissionalização do Tradutor. Lisbon: Fundaçao para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Uniao Latina. 53-58.

Pym, A. (2004). E-Learning in Translator Training. In Lorenza Rega & Marella Magris (Eds.) Übersetzen in der Fachkommunikation – Comunicazione specialistica e traduzione, pp. 161-173. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. (Pre-print here). Spanish version: Pym, A. (2000). El aprendizaje virtual y la formación de traductores. In A tradução na sociedade da informação, pp. 63-70. Lisbon: Unión Latina / FCT. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2004). On the pragmatics of translating multilingual texts. Journal of Specialised Translation, 1, 14-28.  Revised version of: Pym, A. (1996). Multilingual Intertextuality in Translation. In Beatriz Penas Ibáñez (Ed.) The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse, pp. 207-218. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zara­goza. (Post-print here)


Pym, A. (2003). What Localization Models Can Learn from Translation Theory. The LISA Newsletter. Globalization Insider, 12(2/4), 5. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Translation Studies Should Help Solve Social Problems. In Georges Androulakis, (Ed.) Translating in the 21st Century. Trends and Prospects. Proceedings, pp. 439-448. Thessaloniki: Aristotle University. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). The Good Ship Translatus. Word for Word. Official Newsletter of the New Zealand Society of Translators and Interpreters. April.

Pym, A. (2003). Redefining Translation Competence in an Electronic Age. Meta, 48(4), 481-497. Brazilian translation: Pym, A. (2008). Redefinindo competência tradutória em uma era eletrônica. Em defesa de uma abordagem minimalista. Cadernos de Traduçao, 21(1), 9-40. Turkish translation by Mehmet Cem Odacioglu as Elektronik Çağda Çeviri Edincinin Yeniden Tanımlanması: Minimalist Bir Yaklaşımın Savunulması in Fadime Çoban (Ed.) Akademik Çeviri Eğitimi. Temel Metinler, pp. 135-165. Istanbul: Aktif Yayınları, 2021.

Pym, A. (2003). Olympic Translators, in Barcelona and Elsewhere”, Georges Androulakis (ed.) Translating in the 21st Century. Trends and Prospects. Proceedings, pp. 795-799. Thessaloniki: Aristotle University. (Pre-print here)

Biau, J. R. and Pym, A. (2003). Las memorias de traducción y el olvido del traductor. Apuntes para la pedagogía de un avance tecnológico imperfecto. In Gloria Corpas Pastor & Mª-J. Varela Salinas (Eds.) Entornos informáticos de la traducción profesional: las memorias de traducción, pp. 287-300. Granada: Atrio. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Localization and the Training of Linguistic Mediators for the Third Millennium. Ed. Naji Oueijan and Boulos Sarru (Eds) The Challenges of Translation and Interpretation in the Third Millennium, pp. 23-30. Beirut: Notre Name University, Louaize. Reprinted in Forum, 2(1) (2004), 125-135. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Localization and the Humanization of Technical Discourse. Across Languages and Cultures, 4(2), 205-216. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Localization and the Dehumanization of Discourse. The Linguist, 41(6), 168-170. (Pre-print here) (Scanned here)

Pym, A. (2003). Localization and the Changing Role of Linguistics. In Salah Mejri, Taieb Baccouche, André Clas, Gaston Gross (eds) Traduire la langue, traduire la culture, pp. 295-304. Paris and Tunis: Maisonneuve et Larose, Sud Editions. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Henri Meschonnic – Texts on Translation. (selection, translation and preface), Target, 15(2), 337-353. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (2002). Trujamanes. In Mari Pepa Palomero (Ed.) Antología de El trujamán, pp. 134-139. Madrid: Instituto Cervantes. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2002). Training Language Service Providers: Local Knowledge in Institutional Contexts. In Belinda Maia, Johann Haller, Margherita Ulrych (Eds.) Training the Language Services Provider for the New Millennium, pp. 21-30. Porto: Universidade do Porto. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2002). On the Closing of Language International. Language International, 14(6), 42-43. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2002). E-learning and Translator Training, Current Status of Translation Education, pp. 3-36. Seoul: Sookmyung Women’s University. Translated into Spanish as: Pym, A. (2003). El aprendizaje virtual y la formación de traductores, A tradução na sociedade da informação, pp. 63-70. Lisbon: Unión Latina/FCT. Extended version as: Pym, A. (2004). E-Learning in Translator Training, Lorenza Rega and Marella Magris (Eds) Übersetzen in der Fachkommunikation – Comunicazione specialistica e traduzione, pp. 161-173. Tübingen: Gunter Narr. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (2001). Trial, Error and Experimentation in the Training of Translation Teachers. Traducción & Comunicación, 2, 73-90. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). The Return to Ethics in Translation Studies”, The Translator, 7(2), 129-138. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). On the Translatability of Australian Aboriginal Myth. CTIS Occasional Papers, 1, 77-93. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). Interview with Anthony Pym. In John Milton (Ed.) Emerging Views on Translation History in Brazil, 273-284. Special issue of Crop 6. Universidade de Sao Paulo. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). Four Remarks on Translation and Multimedia. In Yves Gambier & Henrik Gottlieb (Eds). Multimedia Translation. Concepts, Practices, and Research, pp. 275-282. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). Alternatives to borders in translation theory. In Susan Petrilli (Ed.)  Athanor 12, nuova serie: Lo stesso altro, pp. 172-182. Reprinted as: Pym, A. (2003). Alternatives to borders in translation theory. In Susan Petrilli (Ed.) Translation Translation, pp. 451-463. Amsterdam & New York: Rodopi. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). Against Praise of Hybridity. Across Languages and Cultures, 2(2), 195-206. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001). Late Victorian to the Present. In Peter France (Ed.) Oxford Guide to Literature in English Translation, pp. 73-81. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2001, August). To localize and humanize… On academics and translation. Language International, 26-28. (Scanned here)


Pym, A. (2000). Why Common Ground is Not Automatically Space for Cooperation. On Chesterman versus Arrojo. Target, 12(2), 346-349. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2000). Translating Linguistic Variation. Parody and the Creation of Authenticity. In Miguel A. Vega & Rafael Martín-Gaitero(Eds.)Traducción, metrópoli y diáspora, pp. 69-75. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2000). The European Union and its Future Languages. Questions for Language Policies and Translation Theories. Across Languages and Cultures, 1(1), 1-17. (Pre-print here) Translated into Hungarian as: Pym, A. (2001). Nyelvpolitikai és forditáselméleti kérések az Európai Unióban. Fordítástudomány, 3, 5-20.

Pym, A. (2000). On the Distance in Distance Learning. In Frank Austermühl & Daniel Apollon (Eds) Humanities Education and the Challenge of E-Learning, pp. 55-62. Bergen: The HIT Centre Publications, University of Bergen. (Pre-print here)

Fallada-Pouget, C., and A. Pym (2000). Learner-Centered Distance Education: a literature review of the ‘no difference’ debate. In: Frank Austermühl and Daniel Apollon (Eds.) Humanities Education and the Challenge of E-Learning, pp. 41-47. Bergen: The HIT Centre Publications, University of Bergen. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2000). On Cooperation. In Maeve Olohan (Ed.) Intercultural Faultlines: Research Models in Translation Studies I: Textual and Cognitive Aspects, pp. 181-192. Manchester: St Jerome. 10.4324/9781315759951-12 (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2000). Innovation in Translator and Interpreter Training. Report on an on-line symposium. Across Languages and Cultures, 1(2), 209-211. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1999). Localizing Localization in Translator-Training Curricula. Linguistica Antverpiensia, 33, 127-137. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1999). Why Translation Studies Should Learn to be Homeless. In Marcia A. P. Martins (Ed.) Tradução e multidisciplinaridade, pp. 35-51. Rio de Janeiro: PUC/Lucerna. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1999). Translation Studies Beyond 2000. In Jeroen Vandaele (Ed.) Translation and the (Re)Location of Meaning, pp. 443-449. Leuven: CETRA.

Pym, A. (1999). Scandalous Statistics? A note on the percentages of translations into English. Source. The Newsletter of the Literary Division of the American Translators Association, 29, 7, 19. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1999). Resplendent Catalan. The Linguist, 38, 80-82. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1999). Globalization and Segmented Language Services. Facköversättaren, 10(6), 10. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1999). ‘Nicole Slapped Michele’. Interpreters and Theories of Interpreting at the O. J. Simpson Trial. The Translator, 5, 265-283. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (1998). Translation History and the Manufacture of Paper. In Roger Ellis, René Tixier and Bernd Weitemeier (Eds.) The Medieval Translator  / Traduire au Moyen Age 6, pp. 57-71. Turnhout: Brepols.

Pym, A. (1998). Spanish Tradition. In Mona Baker (Ed.) The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, pp. 552-563. London & New York: Routledge. (Pre-print here)

Caminade, M., and A. Pym (1998). Translator-Training Institutions. In Mona Baker (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, pp. 280-285. London & New York: Routledge. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and Turk, H. (1998). Translatability. In Mona Baker (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, pp. 273-277. London & New York: Routledge. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1998). Okay, so how are translation norms negotiated? Translation and Norms, special issue of Current Issues in Language and Society, 5(1-2), 107-113. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1998). Note on a Repertoire for Seeing Cultures. Target, 10(2), 357-361. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1998). Lives of Henri Albert, Nietzschean Translator. In Ann Beylard-Ozeroff, Jana Králov and Barbara Moser-Mercer (Eds.) Translators’ Strategies and Creativity, pp. 117-125. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1998). Getting Translated: Nietzsche’s Panama Canal. In Michel Ballard (Ed.) Europe et traduction, pp. 181-192. Arras: Artois Presses Université / Quebec: Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa. 10.4000/books.apu.6508 (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1998). First-Person Singular: The Ethics of Translation (interview). Language International, 10(6), 38-40.

Pym, A. (1998). Ausbildungssituation in aller Welt (Überblick). In Mary Snell-Hornby et al. (Eds.) Handbuch Translation, pp. 33-36. Tübingen: Stauffenburg. (English version here)

Pym, A. (1998). Transferre non semper necesse est. Quaderns. Revista de traducció, 1, 88-93. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (1997). Koller’s Äquivalenz Revisited. The Translator, 3(1), 71-79. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1996). Venuti’s Visibility. Target, 8(2), 165-177. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). Translating the Symbolic Olympics at Barcelona. In Neide de Faria (Ed.) Language and Literature Today. Proceedings of the XIXth Triennial Congress of the International Federation for Modern Languages and Literatures, vol. 1, pp. 363-372. Brasilia: Universidade de Brasília. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). The Price of Alfonso X’s Wisdom. In Roger Ellis and René Tixier (Eds.) The Medieval Translator / Traduire au Moyen Age 5, pp. 448-467. Turnhout: Brepols. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). Strategies of the Frontier in fin de siècle Australia. Comparative Literature, 48(1), 19-38. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). Multilingual Intertextuality in Translation. In Beatriz Penas Ibáñez (Ed.) The Intertextual Dimension of Discourse, pp. 207-218. Zaragoza: Universidad de Zara­goza. (Revised version here)

Pym, A. (1996). Material Text Transfer as a Key to the Purposes of Translation. In Albrecht Neubert, Gregory Shreve and Klaus Gommlich (Eds.) Basic Issues in Translation Studies, pp. 337-346. Kent OH and Leipzig: Kent State University Institute for Applied Linguistics. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). Interculturality in French-German Translation History. Logics of the Excluded Third. In Alois Wierlacher and Georg Stötzel (Eds.) Blickwinkel. Kulturelle Optik und interkulturelle Gegenstandskonstitution, pp. 933-945. Munich: Iudicium. (Revised version here)

Pym, A. (1996). Ideologies of the Expert in Discourses on Translator Training. In Mary Snell-Hornby and Yves Gambier (Eds.) Problems and Trends in the Teaching of Interpreting and Translation, pp. 139-149. Misano: Istituto San Pellegrino. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1996). Catalogues and Corpora in Translation History. In Malcolm Coulthard and Pat Odber de Baubeta (Eds.) The Knowledges of the Translator: From Literary Interpretation to Machine Translation, pp. 167-190. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1995). Translators as breakers of norms? In Jean Delisle & Judith Woodsworth (Eds.) Translators through History, pp. 151-153. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, UNESCO. French version in: Les traducteurs dans l’histoire, Ottawa: Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa, UNESCO: 156-158. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1995). Les voyages du traducteur: deux sens. In Jean Delisle & Judith Woodsworth (Eds.) Les traducteurs dans l’histoire, pp. 194-198. Ottawa: Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa, UNESCO. English version in: Translators through History, Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins/UNESCO: 151-153. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1995). Translational and Non-Translational Regimes Informing Poetry Anthologies. Lessons on Authorship from Fernando Maristany and Enrique Díez-Canedo. In Harald Kittel(Ed.) International Anthologies of Literature in Translation, pp. 251-270. Berlin: Erich Schmidt. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1995). Translation as a Transaction Cost. Meta 40(4), 594-605.

Pym, A. (1995). The Meaning of ‘Life’ in European Aesthetics at the End of the Nineteenth Century, with Implications for a Useful Definition of Modernism. In Christian Berg, Frank Durieux, Geert Lernout (eds) The Turn of the Century. Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts, pp. 353-362. Berlin, New York: De Gruyter. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1995). Schleiermacher and the Problem of Blendlinge. Translation and Literature, 4(1), 5-30. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1995). Resistant Translation Strategies in Robert Lowell’s Imitations and Ezra Pound’s Cantos. In Christine Pagnoulle and Ian Mason (Eds.) Cross-Words. Issues and Debates in Literary and Non-literary Translating, pp. 159-171. Liège: L3. (Pre-print here). Portuguese translation by Juliana Steil and Otávio Guimarães Tavares, Estratégias de tradução evidentes nas histórias de Robert Lowell e Ezra Pound, Ilha do desterro, 72(2)(2019), 399-411. DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2019v72n2p399 (Access here)

Pym, A. (1995). European Translation Studies, une science qui dérange, and Why Equivalence Needn’t Be a Dirty Word. TTR, 8(1), 153-176. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1995). Doubts about Deconstruction as a General Theory of Translation. TradTerm, 2, 11-18.

Pym, A. (1995-96). The First Latin Qur’an, Disputation, and the Second Person of a Translation. In Stefano Arduini(Ed.) Tradurre le sacre verità. La traduzione dei testi religiosi / Translating Divine Truth. The Translation of Religious Texts, pp. 173-183. Misano: Istituto San Pellegrino. (Pre-print here) Arabic translation by Muhammad Saeed Al Mallah: نظرات في الترجمة اللاتينية الأولى للقرآن الكريم Kuwait: Nashiri, 2014. (Access here)


Pym, A. (1994). Twelfth-Century Toledo and Strategies of the Literalist Trojan Horse. Target, 6(1), 43-66. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1994). Student Exchange Programmes and Translator Training: Three Economic Principles. Perspectives. Studies in Translatology, 2(1), 41-50. (Copy here) Revised version in Miquel Edo Julià (ed.) Actes del 1 Congrés Internacional sobre Traducció, pp. 505-514. Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 1996.


Pym, A. (1993). The Problem of Sovereignty in Regimes of European Literature Transfer. New Comparison, 15, 137-146. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). The Geometry of Development and Travel in Spanish-American Modernismo: Darío’s ‘Momo­tombo’ Revisited. In Alun Kenwood (Ed.) Travellers’ Tales, Real and Imaginary, in the Hispanic World and its Literature, pp. 189-197. Melbourne and Madrid: Voz Hispánica. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Performatives as a Key to Modes of Translational Discourse. In Kinga Klaudy et al. (Eds.) Transferre necesse est... Current Issues in Translation Theory, pp. 47-62. Szombathely: Pädagogische Hochschule Berzsenyi Dániel. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). On the Market as a Factor in the Training of Translators. Koinè, 3, 109-121. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Negotiation theory as an approach to translation history. An inductive lesson from fifteenth-century Castile. In Yves Gambier and Jorma Tommola(Eds.) Translation and Knowledge, pp. 27-39. Turku: University of Turku - Centre for Translation and Interpreting. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Market-Based Arguments Against the Market as a Direct Factor in the Training of Translators. Journal of the Association of Slovak Anglicists, 2(2), 7-11. (Pre-print here)

Pym. A. (1993). The Historical Failure of Brotherhood in International Cultural Regimes. History of European Ideas, 16(1-3), 120-130. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1993). Lacunae and uncertain limits in Australian culture, with suggestions on their translation into Spanish. In Kathleen Firth and Susan Ballyn (Eds.) Australia in Barcelona, pp. 27-37. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Doubts about Deconstruction as a General Theory of Translation. In Catriona Picken (Ed.) Translation, the Vital Link / La traduction au coeur de la communication, vol. 1, pp. 508-514. London: ITI. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Coming to terms with and against nationalist cultural specificity. Notes for an ethos of translation studies, Folia Translatologica, 2, 49-69. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1993). Why translation conventions should be intercultural rather than culture-specific. An alternative basic-link model. Parallèles, 15, 60-68. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. and Caminade, M. (1993). Analyse des erreurs traductionnelles et limites de l’enseignement des langues. In R. Gauchola, Claude Mestreit and Manuel A. Tost Planet (Eds.) Les langues étrangères dans l’Europe de l’Acte unique, pp. 253-260.Barcelona: ICE, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. (Scanned here)


Pym, A. (1992). Translation Error Analysis and the Interface with Language Teaching. In Cay Dollerup and Anne Loddegaard (Eds.) The Teaching of Translation, pp. 279-288. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 10.1075/z.56.42pym (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). The Relations between Translation and Material Text Transfer. Target, 4(2), 171-189. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). Strategies of the Frontier in Spanish-American Modernismo, Comparative Literature, 44(2), 161-173. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). Shortcomings in the Historiography of Translation. Babel, 38(4), 221-235. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). La enseñanza de la traducción y la teoría autoritaria de Peter Newmark. El Guiniguada, 2, 305-318. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). In Search of a New Rationale for the Prose Translation Class at University Level. Interface, 6(2), 73-82. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). Discursive Persons and Distance in Translation. In Marcel Thelen and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomasz­czyk (Eds.) Translation and Meaning, Part 2, pp. 159-167. Maastricht: Rijkhoge­school. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1992). Complaint Concerning the Lack of History in Translation Histories. Livius. Revista de Estudios de Traducción, 1, 1-11. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (1991). Translational Ethics and the Recognition of Stateless Nations. Fremdsprachen, 4, 31-35. (Scanned here)

Pym, A. (1991). Limits and Frustrations of Discourse Analysis in Translation Theory. Fremdsprachen, 2-3, 29-35. (Pre-print here) Revised version in Revista de Filología de la Universidad de La Laguna, 11 (1992): 227-239. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1991). A Definition of Translational Competence, Applied to the Teaching of Translation. In Mladen Jovanovic (Ed.) Translation: A Creative Profession: 12th World Congress of FIT. Proceedings, pp. 541-546. Prevodilac. (Scanned here)


Pym, A. (1990). Qüestionement de la traducció del mite. In Anthony Pym (Ed.) Mites australians, pp. 37-48. Cami­nade. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1990). An Economic Model of Translational Equivalence. Parallèles: Cahiers de l’École de Traduction et d’Interprétation de Genève, 12, 121-129. (Scanned here)


Pym, A. (1989). The Importance of Salomé: Approaches to a fin de siècle Theme. French Forum, 14(3), 311-322. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1989). How Much of Australia Fits into Spain? Meanjin, 48(4), 663-670. (Post-print here)

Pym, A. (1989). Cultura australiana: navigare necesse est. In G. Mouillaud-Fraisse & J. M. Fernández Cardo (Eds.) Littérature et double culture / Literatura y doble cultura, pp. 68-79. Noesis. (Post-print here)


Pym, A. (1988). Les notions de « réseau » et de « régime » en relations littéraires internationales. In A. Pym (Ed.) L’Inter­nationalité litté­raire, pp. 5-21. Calaceit: Noesis. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1988). Histoires vraies. In C. Grivel(Ed.) Noir, pp. 155-163. Noesis. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1987). Paraphrase and Distance in Translation. Parallèles: Cahiers de l’École de Traduction et d’Interprétation de Genève, 8, 9-15. (Scanned here)


Pym, A. (1986). Lecture de la frontière spartiate. Noésis, 3. 46-54. (Post-print here)


Book reviews


Pym, A. (2023). Agorni, Mirella (2020): Translating Italy for the Nineteenth Century. Translators and an Imagined Nation in the Early Romantic Period 1816–1830s. Bern, Berlin, Brussels, New York, Oxford: Peter Lang. Chronotopos - A Journal of Translation History4(1), 113–117.


Pym, A. (2021). Review of Kölbl, Julia; Orlova, Iryna & Wolf, Michaela (Eds.) (2020): ¿Pasarán? Kommunikation im Spanischen Bürgerkrieg. Interacting in the Spanish Civil War. Vienna, Hamburg: new academic press. Chronotopos - A Journal of Translation History3(1), 170–174.


Pym, A. (2020). Review of Among the Lost by Emiliano Monge, translated by Frank Wynne. The AALITRA Review: A Journal of Literary Translation, 15, 61-63. (Access here)


Pym, A. (2018). Review of Exorcizing translation. Towards an Intercivilizational Turn by Douglas Robinson. The European Legacy, 23(4), 464-466. 10.1080/10848770.2018.1423784 (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2015). Review of Translation as a Social Activity. Community Translation 2.0 edited by by Minako O’Hagan. Target, 27(1), 145–153. DOI 10.1075/target.27.1.14pym (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2015). Review of How Many Languages do We Need? The Economics of Linguistic Diversity. Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber. Target, 27(2): (2015). 306-312. DOI: 10.1075/target.27.2.07pym (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2015). Review of Translation Changes Everything by Lawrence Venuti. The European Legacy, 20(7), 795-796. DOI 10.1080/10848770.2015.1054194 (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2014). Review of Contribution [sic] of translation to the [sic] multilingual society in the EU. European Commission. Target, 26(1) 2014: 163-167. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2013). Review of Evaluation of Translation Technologyedited by Walter Daelemans and Veronique Hoste. Target, 25(2): 286-290. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2013). Review of How Many Languages Do We Need ? The Economics of Linguistic Diversity by Victor Ginsburgh and Shlomo Weber. The European Legacy, 18(3), 130-131. 10.1080/10848770.2013.804729. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2013). Review of The Pragmatic Translator by Massimiliano Morini. Target (agreement signed but never published, apparently). (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2012) Review of: Translation Practices. Through Language to Culture edited by Chantler, Ashley, and Carla Dente. The European Legacy, 17(1): 140-131. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2009). Review of Talking Voices. Repetition, Dialogue, and Imagery in Conversational Discourse by Deborah Tannen. The European Legacy, 14(6),761-762. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2008). Review of Sociology of Translation by Arturo Parada & Oscar Diaz Fouces, Quaderns de Traducció, 15, 231-235. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2007). Review of Words, Words, Words, by David Crystal. The European Legacy, 12(1): 380-381. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2007). Review of The Origins of Simultaneous Interpretation: The Nuremberg Trials by Francesca Galba. The European Legacy, 12(2): 263-264. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2007). Review of The Translation Zone. A New Comparative Literature by Emily Apter. The European Legacy, 12(5): 645-646. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2007). Review of The Translation Zone. A New Comparative Literature by Emily Apter. Target, 19(1): 177-182. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2004). Review of End of Millennium by Manuel Castells. The European Legacy, 9(3), 410-411. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2004). Review of Justice as Fairness. A Restatement by John Rawls. The European Legacy, 8(4), 558-559. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2003). Review of The Translingual Imagination by Steven G. Kellman. Translation and Literature, 11(1), 139-141. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (2003). Review of Experiences in Translation by Umberto Eco. The European Legacy, 8(2), 254-255. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2003). Review of The Map. A Beginner’s Guide to Doing Research in Translation by Jenny Williams and Andrew Chesterman. Across Languages and Cultures, 4(1), 141-142.

Pym, A. (2003). Review of Interpreters as Diplomats. A Diplomatic History of the Role of Interpreters in World Politics by Ruth A. Roland. The European Legacy, 8(3), 380-381. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2002). Review of Avatars of the Word: From Papyrus to Cyberspace, by James O’Donnell, The European Legacy, 7(3), 412-413. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2002). Review of A Practical Guide to Localization by Bert Esselink. Target, 14(2), 189-193. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2002). Review of Specialised Communication and Translation: On the User’s Side (conference). Across Languages and Cultures, 3(2), 257-266. (Scanned here)

Pym, A. (2002). Review of Translating Into Success. Cutting-edge strategies for going multilingual in a global age, edited by Robert C. Sprung. Target, 13(2), 374-380. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (2001). Review of Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language by Robin Dunbar, The European Legacy, 6(1), 117-118. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2001). Review of The Reformation of the Twelfth Century by Giles Constable, The European Legacy, 6(1), 116-117. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2001). Review of The Scandals of Translation by Lawrence Venuti, The European Legacy, 6(3), 416-418. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (2001). Review of Traducción, emigración y culturas by Miguel Hernando de Larramendi and Juan Pablo Arias; Orientalismo, exotismo y traducción by Gonzalo Fernández Parrilla and Manuel C. Feria García; Traducir la edad media: La traducción de la literatura medieval románica by Juan Paredes and Eva Muñoz Raya. Translation and Literature, 10(2), 289-205. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1999). Review of Crosscultural and Linguistic Perspectives on European Open and Distance Learning by Domingo Sánchez-Mesa Martínez et al., Target, 10(2), 381-383. (Scanned here)

Pym, A. (1999). Review of Translation and Creation. Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China, 1840-1918, edited by David Pollard. Target, 10(2), 369-374.

Pym, A. (1999). Review of Übersetzen im Mittelalter 1 by Hans Vermeer, Target, 11(1), 149-152.


Pym, A. (1998). Review of The World on Paper by David R. Olson, The European Legacy, 3(1), 134-135. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1998). Review of Translating by Factors by Christoph Gutknecht and Lutz J. Rölle, Target, 10(2), 377-380. Pre-print here


Pym, A. (1997). Review of Thinking Out Loud, An Essay on the Relation between Thought and Language by Christopher Gauker. Target, 9(1), 195-196. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1997). Review of Thinking Out Loud, An Essay on the Relation between Thought and Language, Christopher Gauker, The European Legacy, 2(5): 921-922. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1997). Review of Empire of Words: The Reign of the OED by John Willinsky, The European Legacy, 1(7): 2162-2163. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1997). Review of Writing the Colonial Adventure by Robert Dixon, Comparative Literature, 49(3), 281-283. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1997). Review of Bibliographie des traductions françaises by Katrin Van Bragt et al., Target, 9(2), 365-369. (Pre-print here)

Pym, A. (1997). Review of The Sociolinguistics of Interlingual Communication by Eugene A. Nida, The Translator, 3(1): 102-103. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (1996). Review of The Medieval Translator, vols 1-5, edited by Roger Ellis et al. The Translator, 2(1), 89-93.

Pym, A. (1996). Review of Translation. An Interdiscipline, ed. Mary Snell-Hornby et al. Target, 7(2), 363-366. (Pre-print here)


Pym, A. (1995). Review of Translation and Literature 1 & 2. History of European Ideas, 21(2), 195-196. (Copy here)

Pym, A. (1995). Review of Translation and Literature 3. History of European Ideas, 21(5), 709-710. (Copy here)


Pym, A. (1993). Review of Translation: Theory and Practice. Tension and Interdependence, edited by Mildred Larsen. Target, 5(1), 123-126. (Scanned here)

Pym, A. (2001). Review of Introducción a los estudios de traducción by Isabel Pascua Febles and Ana Luisa Peñare Soares, Target, 5(1), 131-132.

Pym, A. (2001). Review of Text Analysis in Translation by Christiane Nord. TTR, 6(2), 184-190. (Access here)


Not-yet-published texts

Progress and novelistic aesthetics of the European nineteenth century (1984)

Translations of Marx (1989)

Programmes européens pour les échanges d'étudiants et réforme de l'enseignement de la traduction au niveau universitaire en Espagne: rapport sur une enquête pilote menée à Barcelone et à Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (1992)

Guiding the Invisible Hand (1997) 

Statistics for Novices (1999)

Benjamin at the Border (1999)

Intercultures and the Interface with National Culture (2002)

Al-Andalus Within Modern Spain. Notes on a Problematic Interdisciplinarity (2003)

The Interculture at the End of Ideologies (incomplete text) (2003)

Communicative efficiency and personalization in email language in an online learning environment (2004)

Translator Training I: University Courses and Programmes. An International Comparison, Translation * Traduction * Übersetzung (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft), Berlín, Nueva York: De Gruyter, apparently never published.

On a proposed European Masters in Translation (2008)

European Masters in Translation – possible contributions from research (2009). Presentation to the first meeting of the EMT, December 2009.

Interview on current issues in Translation Studies (2010)

On inculturation (2011)

Vinay and Darbelnet and the politics of transation solutions (2014)

Translation and economics: rational decisions, competing tongues, and measured literacy (2015)

Johnnies and Mehmets. Take two (2015)

Getting it right, forever? Deconstructing a professional discourse on the role of translators (2016)

Nineteenth-century discourses on translation in language teaching (2016)

Questions on ethics (with a few answers) (2020)



© Anthony Pym 2024