Arduino

Arduino is an open source electronic platform based on easy-to-use hardware and software. You can tell your board what to do by sending a set of instructions to the board's microcontroller. To do this, it uses the Arduino programming language and the Arduino software (IDE). The software (Arduino IDE) makes it easy to write code (C language) and upload it to the Arduino board.

Arduino board designs use various microcontrollers and microprocessors. Generally, the hardware consists of an Atmel AVR microcontroller, connected under the "minimum system" configuration on a printed circuit board to which expansion boards (shields) can be connected through the arrangement of the input and output ports present on the selected plate.




Here you will find the designs that I have made with the Arduino:

Arduino Programming LanguageDifferent designs to learn to program in Arduino in book format:
Lights works
Random building lights
Turntable by segment and sound
Sliding platform
Action push button
Clock-platform screen
Analog shuttle train
DCC level crossing
TCO with S88
Multipurpose accessory decoder
Xpressnet throttle for panel
Route launcher Xpressnet
Public address system for the model layout
DCC Decoder for RENFE signals
Funicular control
LocoSpeedScale train speed meter



This little practical guide comes as a thread on "Basic notions to program in C of the Arduino or understand the listings", in the CTMS forum (Control Tren Modelo por Software). The content of that thread has been transferred here in the form of a book thinking of railway modeling enthusiasts who want to get closer to Arduino programming to apply it in their models.

This is an introductory book to the Arduino programming language in which each chapter advances a little more in the knowledge of the language with examples applied to railway modeling.

Lenguaje de programación Arduino
Castellano Lenguaje_de_programación_Arduino.pdf



Content



Arduino programming language


1. Basic notions

Basic notions of the Arduino language. Basic skecth functions: setup () and loop ()


2. Classic example: Blink

The classic example of flashing an LED using the Arduino. Control of a pin as output and pauses.


3. Another simple example

Control of an LED by pressing a button. Reading of a digital input pin.

4. Simple example for the layout. Men-at-work lights

Flashing lights to mark road works on the layout. The for() loop


5. Libraries included in Arduino IDE

Control of the position of a servo from a potentiometer. Analog inputs and Servo.h library


6. Other libraries

Simple sketch for a single output DCC accessory decoder. The Library Manager.


7. Other timings: Random lights for buildings

Random lights to animate buildings. Random numbers and millis ()


8. Incompatible libraries: Turntable by segment and sound

Servo driven segment turntable with real sound (.wav file) stored on an SD card. Using of switch() - case


9. Use of shields: Sliding platform with stepper motor

Control of a sliding platform with 5 outputs with stepper motor. With limit switch detection for precise positioning. Motor shields and use of struct {} and while ()


10. The Strings: Action Push Button

Action button that allows controlling up to 3 servos and 10 outputs according to a programmed sequence. The sequence is written in a String as simple commands (move servo, turn on, turn off, pause, loop). Strings and libraries in .zip


11. Communications (Serial and I2C): Clock-Platform screen

Platform screen with serial port control. It also shows the real time and temperature. It uses a 0.96 "OLED screen (128x32 pixels) and a DS3231 clock chip. The ternary operator and use of Serial and other libraries.


12. Bits and PWM: Analog Shuttle Train

Shuttle train (back and forth) in analog by PWM with acceleration and braking using only the Arduino Motor Shield. Analog outputs (PWM) and registers of the Arduino.


13. From idea to program: DCC level crossing

DCC decoder for level crossing with servo, high beams and driver's light. Top-down programming and NmraDcc.h library


14. Problematic Bits: Serial Bits and S88 feedback

Computer interface with P50 protocol for reading S88 feedback modules. Serial usage and shift registers with binary data.


15. EEPROM memory: Multipurpose accessory decoder

Accessory DCC decoder configurable from serial port. It can control 14 outputs as fixed, intermittent, pulse or servo type. Use of EEPROM and text formatting.


16. Interrupts: XpressNet throttle for panel

Simple throttle to control locomotives with Xpressnet connection, rotary encoder and 4-digit display. Use of the XpressNet.h Library, interrupts and union {}


17. Boards Manager and Queue: XpressNet Route Launcher

TCO Xpressnet with up to 56 keys and with serial port assignment of turnouts or routes for each key. Use an Arduino Pro Micro. Using other types of Arduino with the Boards Manager and FIFO queues.


18. Sketch in several files: Public address system for the model layout

DCC decoder for public address and ambient sound of the model layout with the DFPlayer. Play up to 144 .wav and .mp3 files from SD card with only 16 accessory addresses. Preprocessing and prototyping of Arduino compiler functions.


19. Writing a library: DCC decoder for RENFE signals

Creation and use of a library that shows various aspects in one or several signals of several lights in accordance with the General Traffic Regulations of RENFE. Creation of own libraries, passing of parameters by value and by reference.


20. State machine: Control of a funicular

Automation for the BRAWA funicular (Standseilbahn 6410) installed in a module with push button to be operated by the public. Programming of a finite state machine (FSM).


Anexo I. Reference to Language


Anexo II. Libraries







LocoSpeed is a scale train speed meter (Z, N, TT, H0 and 0) made with Arduino Uno or Arduino Nano, a 0.96" SSD1306 OLED screen and two infrared detectors.

Together with Jos€p Callarisa we have improved the initial design of Jörg Kießling in N-modellbahn and the later version of MarkusNTrains MarkusNTrains.

Speedometer (Speed measurement):

Scale speed, loop counter in both directions, train length, lap time and estimated length traveled are displayed.


Dial

An analog dial is shown with the speed and direction in addition to the length of the train.


Crono

Designed for the running of locomotives in which the total running time is shown, as well as the number of laps and partial times in both directions.


Radar

The radar option allows setting a speed limit in which if it is exceeded by the detected train, it activates an output for two seconds or a tone speaker


Serial Output (Text or CSV Mode)

The serial output (9600 baud) allows the detection data to be read in the Serial Monitor (or similar: Putty, Terminal, ...). You can choose between a Text mode and a CSV mode to be able to create a .csv file by copying the data from the Serial Monitor into the notepad, save it as locospeed.csv and then load it into Excel.


Configuration

If when connecting the power supply to the Arduino (or resetting it) both detectors are occupied (they detect an obstacle), the configuration mode is entered.
When 'SET SCALE' comes out, remove the obstacle from both detectors and then block only one to go through the different scale options (Z, N, TT, H0 or 0) or display mode, when the one that interests you is selected remove the obstacle and a few seconds later it will initialize normally in the chosen mode.





The 3D design of the LED holder is from Jos€p so that the infrared has a better focus. If you use it, print it in a dark color, at first I did it in white and it was transparent to infrared so I always looked busy.


Download the program and manual here

Another design to measure speed but installed in a wagon and using an ESP8266 with WiFi is the PacoWagon





This is a digital informative conference that will be presented at the 2019 technical conference of the FCAF (Federació Catalana d'Amics del Ferrocarril) about the Arduino and its use with DCC:

Arduino y DCC
Castellano Arduino_y_DCC_2019.pdf
Catala Arduino_i_DCC_2019.pdf





With the Arduino IDE environment you can also program other boards such as those equipped with the ESP8266 WiFi chip:

PacoWagonWagon for measuring speed and distance traveled and ramp/cant for scale trains
PacoWagonDisplayWiFi display for PacoWagon and the Fast Clocks MRclock, Rocrail and JMRI